Physics Materials

I no longer share my current class materials. Please do not try to contact me.

Some older materials can be found below. Much of my new work can be found on this blog and through the New Visions Physics Curriculum project.

Thank you.

-Kelly 11/21/18

Honors Physics

My 2013 updates have tried to make the course a little tighter and sharper based on what my students were able to do last year. I am leaving the 2012 versions here, too. Several of them are a few pages longer than the new copies.

Constant Velocity Particle Model Packet: 2012 | 2013

Balanced Forces Particle Model Packet: 2012 | 2013

Constant Acceleration Particle Model Packet: 2012 | 2013

Unbalanced Forces Particle Model Packet: 2012 | 2013

Momentum Transfer Model: 2012 | 2013

Projectile Motion Particle Model Packet: 2012 | 2013

Energy Transfer Model Packet: 2012 | 2013

Oscillating Particle Model Packet: 2012 | 2013

Central Force Particle Model Packet: 2012 | 2013

Momentum and Energy Transfer Packet (includes elastic & inelastic collisions): 2012 | 2013

Regular Physics 2012

CVPM – Constant Velocity Particle Model Packet

BFPM – Balanced Forces Particle Model Packet

CAPM – Constant Acceleration Particle Model Packet

UBFPM – Unbalanced Forces Particle Model Packet

MTM – Momentum Transfer Model Packet

PMPM – Projectile Motion Particle Model Packet

ETM – Energy Transfer Model Packet

Regular Physics 2013

I am teaching this course with a new, experimental sequence this year. I would not recommend trying to follow along—at least, not yet (though of course everyone is free to use any sequence they desire in their own classes).

ETM 1.0: 2013

CVPM: 2013

MTM 1.0: 2013

BFPM: 2013

CAPM: 2013

UBFPM: 2013

ETM and MTM, 2.0: 2013

PMPM: 2013

CFPM: 2013

170 thoughts on “Physics Materials

  1. Hello there,
    I apologize for contacting you in this way, but I did not see any kind of contact form on your blog.

    I was wondering if you were interested in a review copy of a book on science myths and misconceptions, especially focusing on those still taught in standard textbooks. You can see a couple sample chapters at .

    If you are interested, just send me an addy.

  2. I downloaded the first CVM packets. You say to save the space for the end of the unit …. how to make a model summary. What do you mean by this?

    1. Hi Pam,

      This is one of those things that I’ve stolen from Matt Greenwolfe. At the end of the unit, I have them make a “Pokemon card” for the model. It should include general ideas about the model (diagrams, equations, graphs, verbal statements)… everything you’d need to “play” the “card” at an appropriate time in solving a problem. No example problems, but rather the general ideas. Kids find these really really useful at the end of the semester (as well as at other times when they need to quickly refer to something from a model in a future unit).

      Here are some examples from last year’s CVPM:
      They vary a lot in quality, but the kids get better and better at making good model summaries as the year goes on (well, of course they do since they get more practice at it, right?).

      Hope that helps. Feel free to ask more questions! 🙂


  3. Hi Kelly, I’m a huge fan of yours, Frank’s, Dan’s, Derek’s, and Jason’s… I’m a novice Modeler and newly minted high school Physics teacher. I finish my first term in 9 days.

    I am using Schober’s version of the Modeling Worksheets, but I prefer some of the changes and additions you’ve made. I would like to personalize them to my new set of standards (that I lifted from you and Frank) and to my students, who need a bit more scaffolding that it seems you give your students.

    In your intro, you offer to send materials? Would you please send me or give me access to a complete set in whatever editable format you have them in? I like Pages, but I find myself working in MSWord and Google Docs most of the time.

    Thank you very much!

    Wish me luck!

    1. Thank you for the kind words! I have your email from the comment, so look for an email from me in the next day or so (classes all day today, so we’ll see how it goes) with links and instructions for getting the materials. I write everything in Pages, so it works out perfectly! 🙂

      Good luck with the end of the semester!!


  4. Thank you very much Kelly… I received the instructions to access your stuff.

    I’m diligently working through the worksheets and activities again. I don’t have a deep and nuanced enough grasp of the nomenclature and processes you and others use to help kids construct accurate understanding and deconstruct their misconceptions.

    Your “Building the [fill-in-the-blank] Model” narratives are freakishly-absurdly-awesome. (I lack the superlatives to accurately describe how valuable they are.)

    However, they presume a community of discourse and set of procedures as a foundation for what your class does. I haven’t successfully laid that foundation for my kids, so we have a really hard time recreating similar valuable processes your kids go through.

    I got a lot from your “Whiteboarding with Mistakes” and from some of your SBG discussions that will help me with this. I also checked out a lot of the resources you have about malleable intelligence and the importance of mistakes, struggle and deliberate practice.

    If I could add one thing to my wishlist for things you would blog about, it would be more about setting the tone and establishing and practicing specific procedures to make them successful.

    Thank you! Your blog extends the powerful impact of your efforts in your classroom to at least another 160 kids per year through me.

  5. Kelly, your blog is WONDERFUL! Nice work!!

    Do you know about the Modeling Curriculum Repository that’s on the horizon? Have you been in touch with anyone at AMTA about hosting any of either these materials or your model building descriptions?

    I too am curious about how best to share resources with other teachers! I’m hoping this is going to be a big part of the Modeling community going forward…

    In the meantime, thank you!


    1. Hey Joe,

      I have heard a bit about it, though I’m not sure when that will actually all get pulled together. I wish I had more time to help with it. :/

      I have a folder that I share with several people over SugarSync. It lets everyone sync the files to their own computers so they can easily access the Pages, Word, and PDF versions of my remix of the materials. That’s worked pretty well for me, but it’s obviously pretty limited to only those who ask about it. These documents have also gotten a pretty significant number of hits on Scribd (though I’m not sure how many people that represents).

      Anyway, thank you for the compliment. 🙂 I’m definitely interested in figuring out how to share resources more easily and widely.


      1. Hi Kelly,

        I’m finally chiming in here after 2 years of reading and following your wonderful work and generous nature in sharing all your hard work with others. I echo Joe and say “well done!” and thank you! I just finished my 2nd year teaching physics in a public HS in Texas. My experience and various frustrations with all that comes with traditional physics pedagogy, as well as reading your blog, has prompted great reflection and inspired me to attend the first modeling workshop in NYC in a couple of weeks. My oldest daughter was also a student in a physics class taught by a seasoned modeling instructor this last year also. In preparing for the workshop and what’s beyond in the upcoming school year, I was hoping you might share your SugarSync folder with me. I’ve been working in Word/Google, but am migrating to Pages.

        I don’t yet have my own blog, but if I did (and hopefully I will soon) I would put yours at the top of my blog roll. 🙂

        Thank you again!

        Hope you are enjoying your summer.

        1. Wow, thanks for the great comment!

          Congratulations on finishing your 2nd year of teaching. I remember well how difficult the first few years of teaching were.

          I hope you enjoy the modeling workshop. Or, well, find it really useful. I didn’t really enjoy the workshop that I attended (the acting as students part was really frustrating for me), but I definitely found it really useful (obviously).

          Pages is definitely better than Word. And has a lot more formatting flexibility than Google Docs. I’m a big fan.

          And please start a blog to share your work with us next year! Drop another note with the link so that I can subscribe! 🙂

        2. Hey, Daniel! We’ve got something in common! I’m an experienced Modeler at a public high school in Texas. I earned my master’s at Arizona State in 2005.

          Email me sometime so we can share lesson plans, etc. My school is the only one in our district using Modeling and it is definitely causing some friction.

      2. Hi Kelly,
        I just discovered your blog tonight and it is awesome! I like reading your ideas and comments about specific topics-it is like going to a seminar, only I can re-read the parts that I want to process more. I especially like it because it is like a refresher course.

        I used modeling with my physics students for four years, and am looking forward to returning to a physics classroom after a two year hiatus. I can see that the changes that you have made to the modeling pages are really useful.

        Would it be possible for me to access your pages on SugarSync? I would really appreciate it.
        Thank you,


        1. Hey Suzanne,

          Thanks so much! I should give credit where it’s due and mention that much of the content in my packets has been appropriated from others. I think my main contribution there is just the formatting and layout of the big picture for each unit. And maybe a table here or there.

          I’m hoping to finish my series of model-building posts this summer. I have some really exciting new work to report for the circular motion model, but the end of the school year got the better of me on that one. Hopefully I’ll get to finish it soon.

          You should have an email from me now with the details for accessing the shared folder.

          Good luck with the return to physics classes this fall!


          1. Kelly, not sure what happened to my original blog reply but I also would love to obtain the reg. physics packets via sugar sync. Your name came up at my modeling class this summer and I am SO GLAD I checked out your blog! Great stuff here and thank you for all the resources/ideas.

      3. Hi Kelly,
        Have you received any information on how we can share resources with a larger group? I know that locally we share via Google Docs. I would love to be part of your group, I have learned so much from those of you who blog regularly as well as the Global Physics Department people.


  6. Hi Kelly! I just finished another (6th) year of teaching high school physics and I’m doing my year end review and planning for next year. I don’t teach with the modeling curriculum, but we use a lot of inquiry and reflection, which seems to dovetail nicely with your work. I am curious what other units you have like this and how long it takes you to complete each of these units in your classroom. I really appreciate you posting your materials. I’m super excited to try the no goal problems in my class.

    1. Hey Nicole,

      If you have the chance to go to a Modeling workshop, I’d definitely recommend it. Even if you don’t switch to their materials, I think they give you a lot of helpful ways of thinking about how to get students thinking like physicists. The way of doing that is a lot more important than which materials you use, of course.

      I know I wrote “etc.” above, but the units listed are the main things that we do in my classes (a little slow compared to more traditional survey-type classes, but I think (hope) a lot more understanding than most survey classes). The Honors classes finish the above 10 units by about spring break, then we do something else that varies from year to year. We’ve done more with some Chemistry-type stuff (gas laws, getting to an equation for ∆Etherm, doing heat, etc), this past year we did some circuits via CASTLE and then a sequence through light and waves to get to Why is the Sky Blue?. Next year, I’m planning a really different experience for the spring. Sort of a “capstone” project (but not graded), that will take them several weeks, will involve some writing, and will have a lot of structure. I’m sure I’ll be writing more about that when it gets closer.

      Each of the units is a different length, usually. The longest ones are Energy and Balanced Forces, I think. Just a lot of new ideas introduced all at once in those, so they take a while longer. The others probably take between 1.5 and 2.5 weeks, on average (with 6 x 40 minutes of class time each week in my classes).

      And goal-less problems are the best! 🙂


      1. Wow. I wish i had that kind of time. My required curriculum covers the topics you listed above before the December holiday break. We don’t do quite the breadth of the AP B curriculum, but a lot more depth. I kept on poking around here and had already determined I was highly jealous of your autonomy with respect to Sunday quizzing and study detentions. Now, I’m jealous of your chance to take your time.

        I saw you had some stuff in the BFPM with objects on inclined planes. Do you do have any (or know of any) models of objects suspended by two or more wires (in various a/symmetric configurations)? I keep switching my approach with this topic, but my students seem to only see that the ‘math is hard.’ I’m considering lowering my computational expectations for this if I can find a good way to get more than 75% of the class fully there conceptually. Something in my students brains just completely shuts down there – I really think it is a fear/self confidence thing.

        You’ve really got me thinking about completely changing my approach to force in general. Maybe I’ll change my inquiry style more towards modeling and reorganize and see if I can still keep the mathematical rigor within the time constraints this year.

        1. I am definitely lucky to be able to try out sort of radical ideas and to go the speed that I want to go. I could push my Honors kids faster, but I would lose a lot of them on some topics, and it wouldn’t be very fun, I think. But we could definitely cover almost all of the first 10 units in the first semester (as it is, we cover at least 7 of them). So anyway, I’m glad that I can made some executive decisions about that 🙂

          But back to your question—have you tried using force vector addition diagrams? They take the mathematical complexity of problems way, way down. I can give much more “complex” problems to my regular physics students now, and they can do them all. Before, when I was having them use components, very few of them could do N2L problems consistently. Now, that’s one of the easier skills for them.

          1. I teach vectors separately with both components and the graphical method before we get to force and then do it all over again. I find that you are right, those who are willing to take the time to draw the diagrams carefully always get the right answer. Most however, are sure it will be faster to do things algebraically with components. Their laziness works against them. I have coordinated with the precalc teacher so that they get exposed to trig and vectors in math before I teach it, which has been an amazing help. Maybe I should really push graphical addition and let those who really understood the component method in math use that when they feel like it. I always push who I don’t care which of the many correct mathematical tools they use (graphical vector addition, components, quadratic formula, graphing a function to find its zeros…) to solve a problem. But a little bias towards the graphical method of vector addition might go a long ways.

            1. This year, we did only the graphical method during the balanced forces unit. When we got to unbalanced forces (2 units later), I tried to teach them the whole procedural setup of doing N2L in component form, and my students actually made me stop. Two things happened that day. (1) They told me that they already had a shorter, better way of doing the problem, so why was I wasting their time? and (2) They figured out how to do the component analysis on their own, using the diagrams. In the balanced forces unit, we always did the diagrams to scale with rulers and protractors. In the unbalanced unit, they started to realize that they could break any shape they got into triangle parts, then just use the trig they’d been learning across the hall. (They love Law of Sines the very very most, even when it seems a little impractical to me.) So they just started making sketches of the diagrams instead of scale drawings, using trig, and finding the answers even faster than their fast method. All without memorizing any procedure. No sign mistakes. Anyone who did it that way understood what they were doing better than probably any student I taught in the previous 4 years. Crazy. I’m definitely doing that again. I was wrong and they were right.

  7. Hi Kelly,

    New to modeling in a formal since but have been using whiteboards for 3 years now. This coming year I’m going to try your modeling curriculum (and using some of the materials from the AMTA resources as well). I haven’t had any formal Modeling training so I”m sure I’ll make some mistakes along the way but I believe your resources will keep me on track until I can get to training (maybe) next summer.

    Could you send me the link to your SugarSync versions as I need to change the headings and some of the lab/activity instructions to match materials and devices I have available.

    Thanks for sharing and leading/mentoring!

    Bill Wallace
    Sebastian River High School
    Sebastian, Florida

    1. Hi Bill,

      Have you looked at the PDF versions on this page? I’m just asking because there are never any lab instructions in any of my materials. That wouldn’t fit with the Modeling pedagogy, anyway. I should also caution that Modeling isn’t a curriculum. The materials are curated from lots of textbook problems, mainly, so there’s nothing special about the materials themselves. The special part is the way of using class time, the way of organizing thinking, and the way of doing labs (without written instructions, with guided inquiry, and as the way that the students build the model for themselves, not after being told any equations, ideas, or what to expect—they find the relationships themselves and build a model based on the experiment). In short, you wouldn’t need to modify anything in my packets based on the materials or devices in your classroom. I would definitely strongly encourage you to attend a Modeling workshop if at all possible. I don’t think it’s possible to “get” Modeling from looking at or using these materials. (It took me a couple of years working through it with my classes before I was really “getting” it myself, even though I did go to a workshop!)

      Anyway, I will be sending an email your way with some instructions on accessing the files later this morning.


      1. Good comments. I know I need the training but just not possible with economic conditions and changes in school administration. I don’t get to hung up in terminology so pedagogy and curriculum and course and pacing all mean similar things to me. I came from 27 years in corporate IT so I’m not much of an academic – certainly a deficiency in some respects. But I’ve always been one who wants to figure things out for myself and have tried to teach that way too. Not easy when students have been “trained” to be shown how then practice what they “learned”. I get really irritated when students say “just give me the answer” or “just show me how to do it”. They, in turn, are insulted when I refuse and instead ask them guiding questions.

        Anyway, all I want to change are unit numbers and any other text that doesn’t match the specific way I’ve structured the course in Moodle or the specific apparatus or materials I have to work with. I’m using Moodle to provide digital copies of reading materials, supplemental materials, video and animations, and capture reflections and other digital type homework that students can access outside class Class time will be spent on “modeling” activities as best I can this year. Given my experience with students from previous years classes I’ll need to do remediation but will try to be true to discovery versus “teaching” as much as possible.

        I always tried to emphasize to students to draw pictures of problems as they worked to solve them. Now I have a framework and discipline that I will insist on that was missing before.

        Questions: do you give students a textbook? do you do problems in addition to what is in the packet? Do you assign any additional homework other than what is in the packet?

        Thanks for your help!


        PS. I also have all of the AMTA documents including the Teacher Notes to help guide me.

        1. Before you get the chance to go to a workshop, here are my tips for trying to get the most from just the materials and teacher notes:

          1) Always remember Idea First, Name Later. Try to wait on giving any new idea a name until you’re just dying to stop calling it whatever clunky thing has made sense so far (like velocity-graph-slope, which is the only sensible way to talk about acceleration for quite a while).

          2) A big thing about Modeling is that students organize information and understanding more like experts do. They are building models and thinking in terms of them. So try to step back from the individual units, from the equations and specific concepts, and see how the ideas are being organized. That’s a really big idea that can get lost in the specifics of the teacher notes.

          On to your questions—

          Textbook: Nope! And they don’t ask for one, either (they used to, when we were doing other textbook-less things that weren’t Modeling, but since we’ve switched to Modeling, that request has entirely disappeared). They are creating, not consuming, in this class. They basically create their “textbook” by working through the packets.

          What we do in class is mainly what’s in the packets (though there are some units where we don’t do every problem in the packet), plus quizzes.

          I basically don’t do homework at all (there are some posts on here describing that, like the No Homework Experiment and some course eval reflections from students). That is, I don’t assign homework. I do expect them to do work outside of class, but I don’t tell them what, how much, or when, because that is going to vary entirely from student to student. I try to give them guidance on how to decide what is important to do for themselves (can you imagine a better skill to bring with you to college than that?). I do have some additional problems available on my class website, and I have answers to all of the extra problems also posted on the website (but not solutions). That lets them do some extra practice and better pinpoint which parts of that they need to bring to me for some extra coaching (instead of bringing me everything or nothing).

  8. I am gearing up for my second year of teaching modeling-based physics at an urban charter school. While I completed the modeling-based physics masters program at Buffalo State, I have learned so much this year by doing, but also by reading blogs like yours. I know my students benefit, so thank you! I would love access to your editable materials. It is so wonderful that you are willing to share your hard work, and much appreciated!

  9. I have not taught modeling-based physics curriculum and happened on your site. I have enjoyed reading your blog and thank you for sharing your hard work. I was wondering if I could have access to the shared folder as well. Very interested in implementing during this school year.

    1. Thank you for the kind comment, Alison! There’s an email on its way to you.

      If you haven’t had a chance to take a workshop, I would highly, highly urge you to do that (next summer). You can’t really get the whole idea of Modeling Instruction from the materials (most of the materials are mainly curated from various textbooks and other sources); MI is definitely more about the whole method and different way of approaching class.

  10. Kelly, I am new to modeling as well as physics instruction. Your name came up in my recent modeling class and I can see why…I LOVE this site and all the awesome resources you have shared! I would really like to access the regular physics packets as I can see that these would help my students organize their thoughts. I can’t access the ScribD docs but I do have a SugarSync acct (which I have yet to try)…not sure how this works but could you share the files with me via SugarSync or some other means? Thanks so much.

  11. Kelly, your site is inspiring me to lead a charge to change physics at my district. This will be my 4th year in the classroom, but I have always been left wanting to do so much better. I am implimenting your ideas about standards based grading and I would love to have access to this shared files folder. Thanks for all your knowledge sharing!

    1. No problem! 🙂 There’s an email on its way to you. Have you been to a Modeling workshop? If you haven’t I highly urge you to do so, because the materials themselves won’t do a good enough job of communicating the idea of MI. It’s more about the method than any particular set of materials, and it takes some training to really “get it” (plus some practice actually using it, because it definitely took me a while after the workshop to totally appreciate what I was trying to accomplish). 🙂

  12. Hello Kelly, Thank you for your detailed and insightful comments, descriptions, and materials! I would appreciate editable versions of your materials (so far I use google docs and word). As a new modeler, your blog has been an inspiration to me….

  13. Hi Kelly,

    I’m in line as well! Thank you so much for your insights and great ways to teach kids! Your blog is great! Could I as well get access to your Sugar Sync files? Thanks for sharing your hard work!

  14. Kelly,

    If it wouldn’t be too much trouble, I too would appreciate access to the shared folder of editable files. As I switch to SBG this year I’m trying to streamline some of the work students do and the material in your packets are a great resource. I’ve typically given the students the material a worksheet at a time, but I’m liking the idea of a complete packet that we work through together. Thanks!

    Brian E. (@BEphysics)

  15. Hi Kelly!

    Your blog is amazing, such a great resource for a new modeler like me. I keep coming back to pore over your past posts! I would love to have access to your shared folder of editable files also, if you don’t mind. Thanks a million!

  16. Hi Kelly,

    Thanks so much for your generous donations to the physics teaching blogosphere! Honestly as a new modeler this blog is indispensable for me!

    Now for a question:

    I was looking through your BFPM packet and saw two pages entitled:”empirical force laws experiments (Fg & Fs). This is on pages 10 & 11 of the BFPM 2012 regular physics packets.

    I’m trying to figure out what labs these refer to in the modeling resources, or if they’re something else.

    Could you point me in the right direction?

    Thank you so much!

    1. In the Fg experiment, they find the relationship between weight and mass (various ways to do that). In the Fs experiment, they find the relationship between spring force and spring stretch (also various ways to do that). I think the canon materials have the spring force experiment with energy rather than with forces.

  17. Kelly,

    Long time reader, first time replyer! Anyways, as you already know your blog and willingness to share the awesomeness that is your physics class with all of us is greatly appreciated. I’ve been thinking about blogging myself, but I’m not sure if I’m creative enough, or have anything that is of value to others. (I’ve stolen everything I use anyways).

    As for the question. For some reason over the summer my school has decided to block scribed. Not sure why. Last year I had looked at a couple of your packets and was thinking that might be the way I want to go this year rather than individual handouts all the time. However, now that I cannot see them on scribed I don’t have a good model to follow for my own packets. Could you please send me instructions for your SugarSync files?

    Thanks a ton!

    Brad Wysocki
    Bloomer High School (WI)

    1. Hi Kelly,

      I am wondering if you would be willing to share these files with me in an editable format. I work mostly in word (…gasp); it looks like you’re a mac user, but I can work with that as well if needed. This would be a great help to me!

      Thanks for being so generous with your hard work!

      Seattle, WA

      1. Sure! I export the Pages files as Word documents in the share folder, too, though I’m sure the formatting isn’t very pretty. You should be able to see what it was supposed to look like if you check the PDF, though, even if you can’t open the Pages file.

        Email on its way. 🙂

  18. Hello Kelly,
    I have quietly followed your blog since the beginning 😀 I am truly amazed at your commitment. I would love access to you the SugarSync files.

  19. Kelly,

    Thanks for being so willing to share – both your documents and your thoughts & experiences with what’s working. When you get a chance, could you help me access the SugarSync files? Thanks!

  20. Hello Kelly! My name is Elizabeth Pate and I am a 2nd year teacher in NC. I had the opportunity to attend the modeling workshop at NCSU this summer and am currently in grad school at ECU. I refer to your blog often! As a grad school assignment I need to compare a syllabus, lesson plan, and assessment from a highly effective teacher to my own. I was wondering if you would be able to take a moment of your time and e-mail me those items. I would greatly appreciate your help and the opportunity to learn more about what you do! My e-mail address is

  21. Hi Kelly,
    I’ve been reading your blog all school year after hearing about it from Jane Jackson at ASU. This is my first year teaching (and modeling) and It is nice to get so much online support from all the blogs out there. I teach science (yup all of them) at a tiny rural high school in Colorado and thus am really appreciative of any and all support I can get. I really like how you “transcribe” the student dialog in your blog posts. This is super helpful for us new modelers. Have you (or other modelers) ever thought of filming/posting whiteboard meetings/classroom discussions for us newbies out there? I’ve seen the few videos introduced at my modeling workshop, but am feeling like it would be nice to visually see how other teachers structure the discourse in their classrooms. Maybe a video blog? Just adding more work that’s all!
    Oh, and could I have (doc or pages) access to your packets? I really like how you have adapted some of the problems (I currently use the packets from the AMTA site) but want to reword things to make it relavent to the lives of my rural Colorado students.
    Again, thanks for all the help!

    1. Thanks for the very kind comment, Ben! 🙂

      I don’t feel comfortable filming my classes, and I think I would feel especially uncomfortable about putting videos of my students online. It would change the dynamic in my classroom, and I know that it would have made me seriously uncomfortable as a student to be filmed in class. :/

      With the documents, though, I can definitely help you out. There should be an email headed your way.

  22. Kelly,

    I’m an experienced Modeler in Texas. I’ve been following your blog for some time now and it is truly amazing. I don’t know where you find the time to do it AND send all these emails, too.

    I am the “team leader” for physics at my school and I have sent your URL to many teachers in my area who are interested in Modeling. Unfortunately the atmosphere isn’t ripe enough for major reforms in teaching physics in my district (not the state, either)… I’m still trying, though!

    I’d sure appreciate having access to your files, too, if you have time to send me an email, that is.

    Keep up the good work!

    1. Hi Beverly,

      Have you had the chance to take a Modeling Instruction workshop? I’d highly recommend it. In the meantime, feel free to send me an email with more questions (you should have one from me with the next steps for accessing the materials).


  23. Hi Kelly,
    I am trying a first step to SBG this year. Students and teacher are evaluating the students mastery on the Unit’s objectives. Students are coming after school to reassess. Would you be willing to share some of your additional quizzes on the objectives in word format? Thank you for all you do! As an aside, I also use Matt Greenwoldfe’s method of graphical vector addition to quantitate forces. It makes a lot of sense when you can pictorially represent the unbalanced force whose direction matches the direction of the objects acceleration. It’s great.

    Mike Pustie

    1. Hi Mike,

      Sorry for the really delayed reply here. I’ve had some trouble with assessments being shared digitally (and students then having access to them), so I don’t have the extra tests shared right now. They are basically all one side of one page, and usually I try to test each objective twice on it. When I am making them, I step back from the page and decide whether I would be pretty convinced that a kid would be able to use the skills in other situations in the future if they were able to successfully complete the page (and often I think about kids who were or are partway through mastering an objective while I am looking at the quiz I’ve made—for a kid who I know has some mastery but needs more work, would they be able to get these problems correct, thus missing out on the chance to improve their skills? If so, then I switch out a problem for one that I think will hit that edge better).

      I hope that helps a bit!


  24. Hi Kelly,
    Thank you for all the detailed dialogue you include in your descriptions of classroom experiences. I have especially appreciated the paradigm experiment posts. I am planning to attend a Modeling Instruction workshop, but in the meantime, could you let me know how to access your materials in Word or other editable format. Thanks again!

  25. Hi Kelly,

    I’ve been stumbling all over the internet today from physics blog to physics blog soaking in all the great content and reading about SBG and modeling. I’m starting my first real physics teaching position this Fall and trying to make sense of it all. I really value seeing what other teachers are doing while finding what works for me. If you’re still granting access, I’d appreciate an invite to the shareable folder.



  26. Kelly,

    I love, love, love your resources. I’ve taught physics off and on for the past five years, and have been tweaking my curriculum every step of the way. I’d love to be invited to access your shared folder.

      1. Hi Kelly,
        I’ve been teaching 15 years and I am always looking for ways to present material more conceptually. Hopefully, I will be taking the Modeling Workshop this summer. If not (maybe next year), I still want to incorporate several of the ideas into my plans. You have been so generous in sharing your work. Would you be able to allow me access to the shared files?
        Thank you so much.

  27. Hi Kelly,

    I’ve been teaching for a few years now and gradually incorporating more and more of the modeling approach into my class. It’s been a slightly slower process teaching in an urban public school trying to figure out how to make it work. Overall, it’s been a great process and blogs like yours have really helped.

    I’m currently in the process of trying to shift to a standards based grading system for next year, so I’ve been doing some reading in print form and through various blogs.

    I have 2 requests, if I could be a little greedy…I would love to have access to an editable format of the modeling material you have and a set of quizzes for each topic to help the transition into SBG. After reading through all the previous comments, I can see that you don’t share the quizzes for good reason. Do you know of anyone that shares quizzes broken down by standards?

    1. Hey Gene,

      An email is on its way with instructions. Re: quizzes—I actually don’t break my quizzes down by standards. Instead, I use the same kinds of quizzes as before, but I break my feedback down by standards. I am in the middle of writing a blog post about just this sort of distinction right now (which might not be finished until early summer due to end of year craziness, but should be coming soon). I think it’s going to be called Offsides Assessments. I think its important to keep students doing work in context, but to give them more specific feedback on what skills are going well and which aren’t.


  28. Hi Kelly,
    I’ve been teaching 15 years and I am always looking for ways to present material more conceptually. Hopefully, I will be taking the Modeling Workshop this summer. If not (maybe next year), I still want to incorporate several of the ideas into my plans. You have been so generous in sharing your work. Would you be able to allow me access to the shared files?
    Thank you so much.

  29. Hi Kelly,
    I have been teaching science for 10 years now, but will be doing physics and ap physics c for the first time next year. I am so excited. I was able to attend a free 3 day workshop last year and am set for a 4 day one this summer. I used modeling for the first time this year with my accelerated physical science classes (9th grade). I used alot of physics first material. There were a lot of success and several areas where i need to improve. Your site has given me such great guidance. I cant imagine teaching without modeling now. Thank you so much for all that you do! I hope you realize what a great gift you are giving everyone through you blog. I know it must be a challege timewise. Know that you are having a positive influence on physics education everywhere!

    I would love to have access to your material when you get a chance.

  30. Hi Kelly – I came across your blog through the AMTA site. I just finished my first year of teaching physics and started using the modeling approach and materials from the AMTA. Our school is incorporating PBL for all classes, so my goal this summer is to integrate the modeling approach with the PBL, so I am really interested in versions of your handouts that can be edited. It looks like others have asked and it is available…it would be greatly appreciated! Thanks, Elayne Grueber ( Thanks Again!!

  31. Dear Kelly, Thank you for your blog about how you go about things. I have been modeling for about 12 years and have tweaked what I do based on thoughts gleened from the old modeling listserv and also face to face discussions with a master modeling teacher. I have to admit that I haven’t done much in the way of major changes. Your approach is motivating me to take a leap and make those changes. However, I have always had outside constraints that prevented these changes. I just found out that my administration is splitting my AP C class into one that teaches both mechanics and electricity/magnetism for the high fliers and one that is just year round mechanics. It is that year round mechanics class that I would like to implement some re-ordering of the units since I will have time to clean up any mistakes I am sure to make. Having said all of this, I was wondering if I could request access to your editable documents. My email is
    Thanks so very much. Regards, Rob Spencer

  32. Hi Kelly!

    My name is Charlie Nichols and I am a second year physics teacher (4th year teacher) at an international school in Seoul, Korea. I would like to switch over to a modeling approach next year. Due to time constraints… I am unable to attend a modelling workshop this summer (I know its not ideal) but I am really hoping to attend a modeling workshop next summer. I really appreciate you making your resources available and all the posts where you show how to introduce a new model and how to whiteboard effectively. Those give me a sense of how a modeling classroom flows. I would also appreciate a link to your editable materials. Thank you so much for your hard work!

  33. Kelly – Thank you for being a constant source of inspiration (CSI Model?) as I head into my 3rd year of teaching (public school in Texas). I attended a modeling workshop for mechanics last summer and tried a bit of the material last year, but I fell into a time trap. Luckily, state testing has just been dropped from physics in Texas, so it’ll be a *little* more flexible now. Anyway, I have been hesitant to use a packet-type system with my students since I always felt it would handicap them when they go off to college, but I am beginning to see that they could really help with the organization of the entire course. If you have any thoughts on how they have helped in that regard, I’d love to hear them. In the meantime, would you please point me towards your editable files? Thanks again for your tremendous generosity!

    1. Wow, thanks for the nice comment! I’m so glad to be helpful.

      As far as the packets go, it’s more about printing and looking “legit”—it doesn’t really change the content that you’d hand out on separate pages, so I wouldn’t think about it as handicapping anything. The way I think about it (and talk about it with students and, well, others, too) is that the kids are writing their own book. The packets just help keep everything together (instead of many, many loose pages). And since they have everything for the model, they can keep moving forward if they get ahead. It actually might make them less dependent on me.

      It’s definitely possible to move slowly with Modeling, but I know it’s also possible to move more quickly (because I definitely move more quickly than many others). I’m hoping to study that more closely this year to try to figure out how I can generalize and share the ideas about keeping the pace moving.

      And look for an email about accessing the materials. I’ll send that along now.

  34. Kelly,

    I’m preparing for my 4th year of teaching Physics, and looking back on the previous years and search for new ideas. I’ve read quite a bit of your blog and Action-Reaction, and have tried to incorporate some of the modelling ideas. I keep falling into the trap of trying to cover too much too fast, and I’m trying to re-think my syllabus to cover fewer topics in more depth. I haven’t been able to attend a Modelling Workshop yet, and I know that much of the material may not make sense without it. However, I would love to be able to use some of your editable materials that you have developed. Would you be willing to send me a link?

    1. Hey Zachary,

      I’d definitely recommend trying to make a Modeling workshop fit in as soon as you can, but in the meantime, the Model Building posts on this blog might be helpful in getting a sense of how the labs anchor the material (instead of verifying it), how to incorporate multiple representations, etc.

      An email with the instructions for accessing my files should be on its way to you now. 🙂


  35. Hi Kelly,
    I am new to modeling physics instruction. I would like to access the regular & honors physics packets. Could you send me info to access the SugarSync account? Thanks so much for sharing this wonderful info.

  36. Hi. I am a first year teacher and am charged with teaching physics! I have seen the modeling approach before during my student teaching. I really liked the methods and packets. I would love to have this material available to me so that I can start to prepare for the year. I’m nervous and excited. Please help!

  37. Hello,

    I will be teaching both physics and conceptual physics this year and would love to have access to your materials as I try to fully incorporate modeling instruction into my classroom. I am struggling a bit with modeling instruction in the classroom (getting kids on board, extreme levels of abilities and interest, etc.) but want to make a full go of it this year. Thanks!

    1. Hey Laurie,

      And email is out to you now. I agree that getting the buy-in from the kids isn’t totally automatic. It’s something I’ve also worked a lot to try to figure out myself. I think taking 5 minutes here and there to “go meta” with them can help. When they know that you’re being purposeful, that you have a plan, and that you’ve really thought about what is going to be most helpful to them in the bigger picture (which they start to understand by having those brief meta discussions with you)—that can help generate some of the buy-in, I think. Since they are all in different places (and having different experiences outside the classroom, too), it’s definitely tough.

      Good luck!


  38. Andy Nuetzel here. Is this where I leave a comment so that I can get a MS word copy of your materials? I want to edit them a little and include a page with my standards and a page for the students to keep track of their achievement with the standards like Frank N says.

    (PS – your site has been a goldmine of useful information. Thank you for what you post!)

    1. Hey Andy,

      I think you’re on the folder now—I just wanted to note that you should look at the PDFs, too, because Word doesn’t always play nicely with the formatting when I export the Pages documents. (But the PDFs should at least let you know how I was trying to make it look).

      Enjoy, and good luck! 🙂


  39. Hi Kelly,

    I would also love to get an editable form of your materials. I just learned I’m teaching physics this year a few weeks ago, which was too late to go to a workshop, but I’m really hoping to incorporate the modeling approach. I can’t tell you what an awesome resource your blog has been already!


    1. I’ll get an email out to you now with the instructions. Feel free to ask questions along the way this year—Modeling takes a while to wrap your head around, and I’m happy to discuss! 🙂

      Kelly Physics Power! 😉

  40. Hi Kelly,
    I love your blog – I’ve been reading for a while! I was taught by an amazing modeling teacher when I was in high school and now I’m (trying to) carry on the torch.

    I’d love to have access to your editable materials. Thanks in advance!

  41. Hi Kelly,

    First of all I would like to say thank you so much for the work you put in to this blog. I feel like I have already learned so much from you and want to start utilizing a lot more of the “modelling” ideas into my classroom.

    I would love to get an editable version of your materials. I teach Grade 11 Physics in Alberta Canada and we have a pretty rigid Program of Studies with specific outcomes we need to cover (and not a lot of time for much else unfortunately). I’d love to incorporate what I can but will need to change/cut a few things. I’d love to do a modelling workshop, but unfortunately with young children and living in Canada it’s not really possible. Thanks in advance!

  42. Hi Kelly, I tried posting a comment earlier – don’t think it worked.

    I teach Physics in Alberta Canada. I would love to do a modelling workshop, but unfortunately being in Canada and having very young children makes that difficult. We have a very tight curriculum/program of studies here that we need to follow. I’d love to incorporate some modelling into my course, but would need to be able to edit the materials to suit our specific needs.

    I’d love it if you would be willing to share your editable documents.

    Thanks so much!

    1. No problem. An email is headed your way with the instructions. The one caution I would have is just to keep in mind that Modeling isn’t really the particular set of materials. It’s more about the way of setting kids up to construct ideas and to chunk their knowledge into models—doing experiments to determine relationships (rather than to verify them), discussing their approaches and ideas in whiteboard sessions, etc.

  43. Kelly-
    Hi. I have followed your blog for a while- lots of great ideas. I especially like the idea of physics soulmates. For a long time I’ve pushed formal groups, but with limited success in some cases.

    Anyway, the reason I’m writing is to see if you’d consider sharing your editable documents. I am a Modeler and attended the workshops, but I prefer your formatting over the Modeling ones. I had planned to update my materials as the year progresses, but I’d rather not totally reinvent the wheel. Thanks for considering this, best of luck with your new gig.

    1. Kelly-
      Any chance you could send the instructions my way? I’ve been modifying the pdf files you so graciously shared, but it would be much faster to work off the originals.
      Thanks again,

  44. Hey Kelly,

    Like many of the replies above, I am a novice, no – beginner modeler who has been following your blog as well as the rest of the modelling and SBG blogroll for the past 2 years. Well I finally moved away from my previous district and it’s managed curriculum. My new district has given me complete creative flexibility, so I *finally* have the ability to attempt modeling!! Woo Hoo!! Been waiting 2 years.

    I’m using your 2012 documents for my Physics class but would like access to some editable documents for use in my Physical Science class. These freshmen are taking Algebra concurrently, so I’ll need to modify the models a bit for them.

    Thank you in advance!


  45. Hi Kelly,

    I’m one model into my first year of MI after attending the NYC Mechanics and my second year of teaching in total. I am using the 2013 Mechanics materials but I found them slightly lacking in coherence.

    Could you please share your editable materials with me? My students would greatly benefit from a single packet at the beginning of the unit (one they could not so easily loose as individual hand outs).

    Thank you for your assistance and all you do for the modeling community! You’re basically one of my teacher/heroes.

    Patrick Wanninkhof
    Fordham HS for the Arts

  46. Kelly, I have found your blog extremely valuable. Reading your blog was one of the main things that convinced me to participate in the modeling workshop this past summer in Ohio. Would you be willing to share your editable materials with me?

  47. Hello, Ms. O’Shea,

    I’m having a blast leaping into modeling and your materials/”developing” posts are invaluable. I am eagerly awaiting posts dealing with pacing/timing b/c its a big problem I have. I notice that you haven’t posted in a while. I really hope that it’s because life is so fantastic and busy and full that more important things are taking center stage :). Anyway, like so many others, may I have access to your editable materials? Finally, i can only imagine how much effort/time/thought all of this takes. If you accept donations, please let me know.

  48. Hi Kelly,

    I recently completed my student teaching and have just acquired a job teaching high school physics for next school year. I’d like to structure my class around the modeling curriculum as I feel it’s the most logical (and engaging) way to present the material. Your blog (along with the AMTA website and Mark Schober’s page) has been an invaluable source of information for me as I begin to develop my course outline. However, I was wondering if I could get a link to the editable materials, as well as a sample of an end-of-unit standards-based assessment if possible. I’m considering using SBG, but I’m not entirely sure how to develop the necessary exams.


  49. Hi Kelly,
    I am very happy to say I am almost done with my first year as a physics Modeler! Your materials have been great and our new physics teacher will be taking a Modeling Physics workshop in Chicago this summer. We’re excited to use Modeling next year in physics. I have the AMTA materials and your pdf’s but would you be able to send a method to obtaining your editable materials in .doc or even pages (now that I have entered the Mac world)? Your packets and blog posts saved me this year and I would love to use your packets instead of the individual AMTA worksheets. I’m a packet guy.

    You’re the best!

      1. Kelly, I’d like to be added to your Sugar Sync as well. I got the opportunity for 2 days of modeling PD, but grad school this and next summer is going to keep me from my regional workshop. My kids usually need quite a bit of modding from most materials I use with them in class, so the .docs are advantageous. This is an excellent resource you’ve made avaialable. Thank you in advance.

          1. I’ve got my account all setup using your link, just need you to add/invite me to the folder. My email is same as above, I haven’t used this before, I’m anxious to see how it compares to Dropbox, Drive, and Box, all of which I use constantly. Thank you for the assistance!

            1. Link sent! I used to use a different service, but it discontinued its free plan option, so I tried out Copy on the recommendation of another teacher that I know. So far, so good. 🙂

  50. Hey Kelly,

    I’m finishing up my first year of teaching physics now, and I’ve been devouring all the material I can to try and keep improving for next year. Would you please share the resource folder with me?

    Thanks for this fantastic blog. It’s an awesome resource for those new to teaching!

  51. What a wonderful blog! Thank you soooo much for sharing your materials. I was hoping that I, too, might be able to get a copy of your materials? I’m diving into teaching physics using modeling in the fall and wanted to spend the summer organizing things so that it is sequenced in the easiest order for the students. Modeling, when done correctly, offers so much to the student, but requires a bit more planning up front to implement – or so it appears to me.

  52. Hi Kelly,
    Thanks for your response to my email and for all the work on your blog. I am currently in the middle of a modeling workshop and really enjoying everything that I am learning. I am working to try to make the best fit for the charter school I will be working at next fall. Would you mind sending me your files in a more editable format. It would be much appreciated. Also after I come up with a proposed course I would love to discuss it with you if at all possible.
    Ryan Clark

  53. Hi! I am not sure how I found your website, but I have been mesmerized ever since. Your love for teaching is so apparent and I have enjoyed reading about your teaching practices. I look forward to implementing some of your techniques in my physics class this next year-especially those goal-less problems-they are fantastic! I would love access to your materials if you are so willing to share. Thank you!

  54. Hello Kelly,
    I’m a relatively novice modeler, I really enjoy your blog and teaching insight. I’m going to be teaching the new AP Physics 1 Course this year and plan on using your honors physics materials. I was wonder if you could share them with me..(please and thank you!!:) Also have you created a syllabus for AP1? I’m working on it now, but I would love to have a modeling friendly version to work from.
    Again Thank you!!!

  55. Kelly,

    I stumbled across your blog a few years ago during my first year teaching Physics and have been routinely checking in ever since. Thank you so much for your blog posts (especially the model building posts…those have infinitely helped me approach planning my class activities) and for sharing all of your materials! I haven’t yet had the chance to attend a Modeling workshop (hopeful for the Buffalo State workshop next summer), but it’s great to see materials encouraging learning science through “doing science”. I would love access to a more editable version of your materials if you’re willing to share them! Keep up the awesome work!

    Rick Heffernan

  56. Dear Kelly,

    Could you please send me the details of how to access your materials in a non-pdf format?
    And thank you so much for this blog and all that you are sharing here! I am getting revved up for a new physics job after a few years away having babies and this has been the most amazing resource for getting excited and thinking about how I want to teach. I teach IB physics at an international school in Sweden.
    Thanks again!
    Wendy McRae

  57. Hi Kelly! Your adaptation of the modeling method is fresh air to me. Would you be willing to provide editable copies of your work to me?
    Rodger Baldwin

  58. Hi Kelly! My name is Nell Bielecki and I teach 8th grade science (introductory physics benchmarks brought down from the high school) in Berkley, MI. Your blog has a been a tremendous help to me. I recently completed my first Modeling in Physics workshop (loved it!) and I can’t wait to get started in my classroom. However, I have a small problem. There is an obvious threshold working with 8th graders since we don’t do any trigonometry. Can you offer any suggestions on how best to implement this approach with middle-schoolers? I’m open to any and all advice. Thank you. Also, if I could get editable copies of your packets, that’d be great! Thanks for sharing.


  59. Kelly,
    I know it is probably a very busy time for you starting new school year at a new school. I was wondering did you finish updating your standards for each of the models? If so would you be willing to share those and any of your modeling packets. Your work is great and I cant wait to try them out this year. My email is

  60. Kelly,
    Thank you for your posts and all the resources. I took a modeling workshop this summer and am using it in my class this semester. I would be grateful if you could share your editable packets. Thank you.

  61. Hello Kelly,

    This is my second year teaching physics and first year teaching modeling. I just found you blog and have already tried a version of speed dating that included building in mistakes. I was wondering if you could send me editable versions of your unit documents.

    Thank you,


  62. I wanted to say thank you for your blog. I am a 2nd year physics teacher and this is my first year teaching using the modeling method. I just used a version of your dating white-boarding session and it went really well. I had the students in pairs, 10 students worked on the same problem, and they switched every 3-5 min. Some groups finished early so I had them put mistakes into the boards. This lead to great discussions when we went to full class discussion mode. Thank you. Also, I was wondering if you could share with me your editable files.


  63. Kelly,

    I appreciate you taking the time to share your classroom ideas. I especially love the inner and outer class dialogues of how certain activities go.

    I teach physical science and biology at our high school, and will be teaching physics in the upcoming spring.
    I don’t know what level students take physics at your school but in Hardin County it goes like this:
    at our school. Here’s how the science route goes (obviously influenced by state testing and now common core):
    Freshman – Biology I
    Sophomore – Physical Science (practically a pre-chem), if honors they let the students do Chemistry second semester
    Junior – Chemistry (usually the stopping point for many), if a students is doing an honors diploma they have to have 1 more science so Chemistry II, Biology II, and/or Physics.
    Usually physics is always second semester senior year.

    I am not new to physics, but definitely new to teaching it. Our last ‘real’ physics teacher retired 5 years ago (I actually had him when I was going to school. The last person who taught it has also retired, but it was treated it as a use the cd that comes with the book and more like a glorified math class.

    I have been looking at different curriculum and resources. I use white boarding and the POGIL concept in my Physical Science Classes. When I read your blog as well as Frank’s I instantly had to research more.

    Would you mind sharing the resource folder you have mentioned in other comments? I also noticed the link about the Pokemon Cards is down.

    Last question (promise for now!) If you had to pick your top 5 or so lab equipment what would they be? Our science department has a budget, but I would like to start building up equipment that can be used for modeling labs.

    Thanks again for all your ideas!

    Lucas Jones
    Hardin County High School
    Savannah, TN

  64. Kelly,

    I really appreciate all the work you have done to enhance Physics education not only for your students, but for ALL students. Several years ago, I participated in a Modeling Workshop led by Matt Greenwolfe in NC. Matt referred to you during that workshop and soon after that workshop, I found your blog and have used and referred to your material and words of wisdom frequently. This year I have moved to an inner city school that is on block schedule. First semester, I had chemistry classes. This spring semester, I will have physics again. I am looking forward to building the physics program and students understanding of physics. However, we have a very limited copy count. Therefore, I am unable to copy the pdf. forms from either your cite or from the modeling workshop. I know that you are teaching other subjects and your time is limited, but you mentioned above contacting you if we would like the files in another format. If possible could you share the CVPM packet with me in “word” or another editable format such that I can minimize white space and make copies for my students.

    Thanks for all your work,

  65. Kelly,
    Thanks for sharing these great resources! I’m in my 2nd year of teaching and your reflections and materials have been so valuable. I would love a copy of the editable resources folder, if possible. I am working on adapting some of the materials to match the IB physics syllabus topics a bit more. What are your thoughts on extending this modeling approach to topics like particle physics or astrophysics?

  66. I’m a little late to the game, but I’d love to have an editable version of your honors physics packets if that is still possible.

    Wondering if you are still teaching this way? I’m continually looking for ways to make the science “real” for students, so the lab practicums I have read about in modeling physics are one of my favorite parts!


  67. Hi Kelly,
    I am a huge fan of your blog, and love teaching physics – this year, I’m going to try out the “modeling” approach – and am looking forward to a workshop this summer. I too would be grateful for editable resources.
    Thanks so much for your ongoing commitment and general cool-ness.
    Lisa Zavieh (

  68. Hey Kelly!
    I’m headed back to the physics classroom after 18 years in middle school science. I’m struggling to incorporate standards based grading and really appreciate your work and ideas. Would it be possible for you to share your modeling packets? Many thanks.

  69. Kelly,
    Thank you so much for all the information on you blog. I am trying out modeling for the first time this year and am really excited for it. I, too, would love access to the editable versions of the files. Thanks!

  70. Hello Kelly,
    I just wanted to thank you ever so much for posting EVERYTHING that you do!! I cannot begin to tell you how invaluable your material is. This is my 24th year of teaching chemistry and my 20th year of teaching physics in addition to chem. I was taught to teach the “traditional” (old, outdated) way of teaching, and I didn’t truly love to teach until I noticed it’s much more fun when the kids are actively involved and collaborative in their own learning. I have read every word of your blog (I think), and I do believe you could be single-handedly changing science teaching nationwide. Thank you, thank you.
    Lisa Koch

  71. Hi Kelly,

    I’ve been teaching physics for a few years now. I have also taught math in the past and had used standards based grading. I am interested in doing something similar for physics now, but I don’t really know where to start. Would it be possible to have access to what you have done?

    Thank you,

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